India is part of the Asia Continent. India is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal to the East, the Arabian Sea to the West, and the Indian Ocean to the South.
The Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world, rises in the northern part of India.
Indian terrain is diverse, ranging from the Thar Desert in West India to the jungles of the Northeast. The Ganges Plain, a fertile region in northern India, covers a large portion of the country. This formation was formed from soil that was deposited by the Himalayan rivers. This layer of silt can be more than 7,620m thick in some areas.
Area of land
India has an area of 3,287 263 sq km. It covers roughly one-third of the area of America and China. It is twice as large as Iran or Mongolia, and ten times larger than Malaysia or Norway.
India, a large subcontinent, enjoys a variety of climates. It is tropical monsoon-prone in the South and temperate in the North. The northwest has dry desert-like conditions. India is the wettest country on Earth.
India’s Bordering Countries
India is located in South Asia and is the 7th largest nation in the world. It is a peninsular nation and is therefore bordered mainly by water bodies of India’s Arabian sea towards the southwest, the Bay of Bengal towards the southeast, and the Indian Ocean towards the South.
India shares its border with seven countries-
- Pakistan and Afghanistan to Northwest
- China, Nepal, Bhutan, and the North
- Myanmar to the Far East
- Bangladesh to the East
- Two countries that have water borders are Sri Lanka (from the southeast) and the Maldives, (from the southwest).
Which river is India’s longest?
The longest river in India is the Brahmaputra River. It flows over 2900km.
Which is India’s highest point?
At a height of more than 8.5 thousand meters above sea level, the Kanchenjunga peak is India’s tallest mountain. It borders India and Nepal and contains five peaks. Nanda Devi was next at 7.8 million meters. These were mostly found in the country’s north and formed a part of the Great Himalayan Ranges.
What is the lowest point in India?
Kuttanad is India’s lowest point, at 2.2 meters below sea level. It is located in Kerala in the Alappuzha or Kottayam regions. These areas are home to the majority of agriculture, with paddy cultivation being the most important economic activity. English and Malayalam are the official languages.
What is the average rainfall received in India?
India receives an average of 125 cm of rainfall. The Southwest monsoon was responsible for 75% of India’s total rainfall (June-September), 13% by the northeast monsoon, October-December, and 10% by premonsoon and cyclonic rain (mainly in April-May), and 2% by western disturbances (December-February). Around 400 cm of rain is received annually by North-Eastern India and the western coast. It is lower than 60 cm in Rajasthan, Haryana, Gujarat, and Punjab.
Heavy Rainfall Areas are those areas in India that receive more than 200cm of rainfall. India has three major areas:
- The Western Ghats’ western slopes.
- North-east India (except Tripura, Manipur)
- The Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands
Areas with low rainfall: Areas that receive less than 50cm of annual rainfall. These areas are found in India.
- Northern Gujarat, Western Rajasthan, and the southern part of Punjab-Haryana.
- The Ladakh desert.
- The rain-shadow region of the Western Ghats.
India’s monsoon rainfall is unpredictable. In areas with heavy rainfall, this variability is lower than in areas with low rainfall. Variability refers to the deviation in the amount of rainfall that is recorded at a specific place in a given year from the average annual rainfall.
The Bursting of Monsoon is a phenomenon where low pressure forms in northern India at the start of June. This causes rainfall with lightning and sudden thunderstorms that lead to southwest monsoon towards the Indian Ocean. This is called the “bursting of monsoon.”
What is the Indian river system?
India’s rivers play an important role in people’s lives. River systems are vital for water supply, irrigation, electricity, transportation, and livelihood.
India’s Drainage System
The drainage system of India, also known as the rivers, can be divided into two main groups:
- The Himalayan rivers
- The rivers of the Peninsular
The Himalayan Rivers
The Ganga, Indus, and Brahmaputra are the main Himalayan river valleys. These deep valleys have steep sides made of rock by the river’s down-cutting during the Himalayan uplift. They are capable of intense erosion upstream and transport a lot of sand-silt.
These rivers are perennial because they receive water from rain and melting ice. They create vast plains that can be traveled over large distances. Hydroelectricity can also be generated by these rivers if they are harnessed in the upstream catchment area.
Three main Himalayan rivers, Ganga, Indus, and the Brahmaputra are the three major ones.
The Indus River
It begins in Tibet near Lake Mansarovar. It flows towards the West and enters India through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Ganga River
Gangotri Glacier is responsible for feeding ‘Bhagirathi’, which is the Ganga’s headwaters. It is joined by the Alaknanda in Uttarakhand. The Ganga appears at Haridwar, having climbed the mountains to the plane.
The Brahmaputra River
The Brahmaputra rises at the Tibet East of Mansarovar Lake, right next to the rivers Indus & Satluj. The Brahmaputra flows parallel to the Himalayas to the East.
The Peninsular Rivers
The major peninsular river systems are the Narmada and Godavari rivers, as well as the Tapi, Tapi, Kaveri, Krishna, and Mahanadi rivers. Low valleys are where the Peninsular rivers run. Many rivers are seasonal because their flow is dependent upon rainfall. Because of its gentle slope, the intensity of erosional activity is also relatively low. Because of the hard rock bed, there is no silt or sand and it does not permit any meandering. Many rivers follow straight, linear routes. These rivers offer huge potential for hydroelectric power.
These are the major rivers of Peninsular: